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Concrete 3D detector
    Publish time 2015-08-12 21:57    
Concrete 3D detector

Applicable for concrete inspection allowing imaging of the internal structure of objects from concrete, reinforced concrete, different stones. The operation applies pulse-echo technique at one-side access to the object. The instrument is feasible for concrete inspection for searching conduct ducts, conduits, detection of foreign inclusions, holes, honeycombing, cracks and other defects inside the concrete objects and to assess the condition of reinforcement in concrete. Due to tomographic data processing the more informative imaging of structure is provided.

Ultrasonic tomograph A1040 MIRA is assigned to control concrete structures, ferroconcrete and stone with one side access in order to determine the integrity of the material in the structure, search of foreign insertions, cavities, not grouted areas, exfoliations and cracks, and also measuring the thickness of the controlled object. It is possible to control thicknesses up to 2 meters.


  • Visualization of the inner structure of the controlled object with on side access
  • High efficiency – reconstruction of one tomogram takes 3 seconds
  • Ease to use
  • High precision and sensitivity of the device to different reflectors
  • There is no need to prepare the surface of the controlled object
  • Wear-resistant transducer tips


  • Independent work with data without an external computer
  • Dry acoustic contact
  • Adaptation of the antenna to roughness of the structure surface
  • Automatic measuring the ultrasound wave spreading speed in the controlled object
  • 3D representation of the inner structure of the object and B-, C-, D- tomograms of any cross-section of the object
  • Possibility to use the tomograph in hand control and also in automated installations

General description

Tomograph for concrete A1040 MIRA is a fully autonomous measuring block, which is used to collect and tomographically process received data. The measuring block contains a matrix antenna of 48 (12 blocks with 4 elements in each) low-frequency broadband transverse wave transducers with dry dot contact and ceramic wear-resistant tips. This provides their long use on rough surfaces, without applying contact liquid. Every transducer has an independent spring suspension which allows conducting control on rough surfaces. Nominal operating frequency of the array is 50 kHz.


Small light body and a moveable handle provide a convenient use of the device on horizontal, vertical and overhead surfaces of the object controlled structure.

A big and bright TFT display and a keyboard allow easily set the device for the controlled object chose necessary operating modes and conduct control, observing received results, which gives the opportunity to preliminary analyze it.


The device has a built-in computer, allowing to process data during operation, show it on the screen and save to the memory. For advanced data processing with special software there is a possibility to transfer the data to a computer.

Processing and presenting the data on the tomography`s screen

  Collecting the data

The synthetic aperture focusing technique with combinational sounding (SAFT-C) is used in the device, by which focusing in every dot of the half-space is made. Data array is formed by gathering information all measuring pairs of the tomograph`s antenna device. Signals received by during the working process.

Then the received data is shown on the screen and saved in an embedded flash memory. As a result a visual image of the cross-section turns out (B-type), where in different colors (depending on the chosen palette) the reflecting power of every dot of the visualized volume is coded. Gathering and displaying data time is 3 seconds.

Operation modes

A1040 MIRA has two main operation modes and also a configuration settings function for every specific controlled object with possible further quick choosing:

VIEW mode

This mode is intended for quick viewing the inner structure of the construction in random places. A B-tomogram is shown on the screen to a depth up to two meters. 

Additionally in this mode: 
- Automatic estimating the ultrasound wave speed. 
- Measuring the coordinates and image levels in the tomogram. 
- Measuring the construction thickness. 
- A-Scan viewing.

MAP mode

This mode is intended for forming data arrays in a form of B-tomogram sets of the controlled object (perpendicular to the surface) when scanning with the DFA along marked lines with a constant step. From the collected 3D data array a B-type image can bу shown on the screen.

Control is conducted by a step-by-step scanning scheme with joining data and volume reconstruction under the whole scanned area of the controlled object.


SETTINGS function

Used for choosing and setting parameters and working configurations.

There is a possibility to create and save working configurations for different controlled object. Possibility to name objects and technical parameters, with further choosing them from the memory before control.


The device is supplied with specialized software for advanced processing received data on a PC.

Ультразвуковой томограф - дефектоскоп А1550 Ультразвуковой томограф - дефектоскоп А1550 Ультразвуковой томограф - дефектоскоп А1550

The program provides reading data from the device and performing it as in a form of a tomogram, as in a 3D volumetric view, which simplifies understanding the configuration of the inner structure of the controlled object.

Ультразвуковой томограф - дефектоскоп А1550

Application examples

Thickness measurement of concrete block

Testing object 
Concrete slab, made in form of steps with different thicknesses: 
Length of each step along the testing line - 500 mm 
The total length of the object – 1500 mm 
Thickness of steps – 210, 330, 450 mm 
Scanning step - 50 mm 
Velocity, measured at calibration – 2872 m/sec 
Length of scanning line - 1000 mm 
width of scanning line – 500 mm 

Results of testing 
Testing was made along the length of the object with the constant step of 50 mm. 

Режим CБОР 


On the reconstructed image (on the left) in D-Scan the backwall reflections of all steps are well seen, at that the borders of each step are clear, the operator can see where ends the first step and the second starts and so on. Also the second and third re-reflections of backwall signal are seen, basing on which we can tell that on the object from this kind of concrete it is possible to make testing on the depth of 1 meter. The 3D image allows better understanding of positioning and character of received reflections in the whole volume of the object. 

Testing of ducts inside the concrete block

Testing object 
Concrete slab, made in form of steps with different thicknesses: 
Length of each step along the testing line - 500 mm 
The total length of the object – 2000 mm 
Thickness of steps – 210, 330, 450 mm 
Scanning step - 50 mm 
Velocity, measured at calibration – 2872 m/sec 
Length of scanning line - 1000 mm 
width of scanning line – 500 mm

Results of testing 
Testing was made along the length of the object with the constant step of 50 mm. 

Режим CБОР 


On the D-scan of reconstructed image all four steps and of three ducts in each step. The forth duct is also on the tomogram, though its image is not so clear. At the same time the forth duct can be seen and studied on the B-scan (the corresponding B-scan is given below the main tomogram). 
On the D-scan the backwall reflection is disappearing in the area below ducts. This shows that this is not a local though prolonged reflector.  

Testing of ducts inside the concrete block

Testing object 
Concrete slab, made in form of steps with different thicknesses: 
Length of each step along the testing line - 500 mm 
The total length of the object – 2000 mm 
Thickness of steps – 210, 330, 450 mm 
Scanning step - 50 mm 
Velocity, measured at calibration – 2872 m/sec 
Length of scanning line - 1000 mm 
width of scanning line – 500 mm

Results of testing 
The direction of testing was chosen along the duct, that was detected in previous case, to confirm the fact that the reflection we received is not a local reflector in one position of the array, though a long duct. The array was positioned the way that the duct was in the center of the array. 



The reconstructed image the duct and the backwall are clearly seen. The sections in 3D image windows show the behavior of the duct in the volume of the object. 

Search for not grouted areas behind the paneling

Testing object                                                                                   
Testing area of Scientific-Research Center "Tunnels and Underground", Moscow. 

According to tunnels building technology the area behind the concrete paneling of tunnels (which is a load-carrying structure) is grouted with sand-cement mixture, providing hermetic encapsulation of the tunnel. The presence of non-grouted areas is not allowed. 
The task of testing is to find the non-grouted areas using non-destructive methods of testing 
Description of the object: the testing area of underground tunnel, reinforced concrete paneling is 250 mm thick, behind the panels there are areas with air, sand or sand-cement mixture. 
Testing process: testing was made as step by step scanning across the paneling (antenna array was placed vertically), step of scanning 50 mm. 
Method of testing: pulse-echo technique was used, the image of the testing sections along the line was reconstructed. The presence of air or sand behind the panels was estimated by the presence of the first and the second backwall signals, the mixture behind the panels meant the significant fall of backwall signal amplitude. 

Results of testing 
The analysis of reconstructed image and amplitudes of backwall signals allows detection of area without the grouting mixture behind the pannels. The chosen testing method provided 78% detection. This is the best result among the testing methods applied for this task on the area.  

Search for not grouted areas behind the paneling in a railway tunnel

Testing object 
"Krolskiy" railway tunnel. Search for non-grouted areas behind the paneling. 

The object under testing is a railway tunnel 9 meters in diameter with one railway lane. The walls of the tunnel are fixed with reinforced concrete panels, 400 mm thick. The panels are made from concrete type B45 (W12 F300). The reinforcement is a two layer grid on the depth of 50 mm from both sides. The longitudinal reinforcement bars are 22 mm in diameter, the shear reinforcement bars are 8 mm in diameter, reinforcement step 230 and 220 mm. 
After fixing the panels the area between the panels and the ground is filled with sand-cement mixture mark М200. At the same time a big area is filled, therefore appearing of holes or scouring of nonsolidified mixture by ground waters are possible. After the main grouting the additional injections of mixture can be maid through special drillings, but the locations of drillings should exactly correspond to the empty areas, otherwise this process is useless. 

The task of testing is more exact detection of the non-grouted areas behind the panels.  

Testing results, received on the single lying panel. 

Results, received after testing paneling on the wall of the tunnel. 

Results of testing 
The testing was executed using ultrasonic tomograph for concrete A1040M MIRA. Each segment of paneling was divided on lines with thickness equal to the length of antenna array - 400 mm. The position of lines on the paneling is represented on the draft below. 

Режим CБОР 


The idea of detection the nongrouted areas consists in the following: the free backwall of the panel (which means - no mixture behind the panel) reflects 100% of ultrasound energy sent to the object, at that in case there is mixture behind the backwall will reflect only the part of the whole energy. 
As samples of panels with air behind the operator used the single panels heated to the preinstallation temperature. On the image on the left received on these samples the backwall is clearly seen, also there are images of reinforcement bars and their location. 
Below is the result received on the paneling with grouting mixture behind. In case of good contact between the panel and mixture the ultrasound propagated to the mixture and the backwall signal received had a low intensity. In case of air areas behind the panel, the whole ultrasound energy should reflect from the backwall of the panel. 
Therefore analyzing the image of the backwall signal (and the presence of the second backwall reflection) it is possible to conclude about the quality of grouting and quality of contact between the paneling and grouting mixture.

Crack testing 

Testing object
"Krolskiy" railway tunnel. Crack estimation. 

The testing object is the same as in previous example. Additionally on the paneling the areas with cracks repaired with injection were inspected. 

Results from two lanes 

Results of testing

The C-scan of the synthesized image shows the crack partly reflecting the ultrasound (marked with the black line) goes from the bottom (on the left) to the upper part (on the right). This is corresponds to the actual state of the crack on the panel. Below is the second testing lane with both cracks seen. As a conclusion we can say that after injection the places that were cracked are still not the solid concrete. 

Testing of concrete slab on the bridge 

Testing object

Bridge concrete slab. Thickness of slab vary from 50 to 100 mm. The number of reinforcement grid layers - from 5 to 7. 
Tasks of testing: Thickness measurement of concrete slab. Search for honeycombs. 

Concrete slab thickness measurement

Thickness measurements 
Search for honeycombing 

Results of testing

The given image of the internal structure received after testing with the tomograph A1040 MIRA shows the constant backwall image on the thickness of 100 mm, in close to backwall area there are defected places: supposedly honeycombing or corroded reinforcement. 

This example shows the result of thickness measurements in the place where the thickness of concrete slab reduced from 100 mm in the beginning of testing line to 50 mm at the end. The second backwall reflection exactly copying the first one confirms this conclusion. 


Parameter Value
General Characteristics
Size 380x130x140 mm
Weight (with battery) 4.2 kg
Display Pixels 640x480 pixels
Display Diagonal 14.4 mm (5.7”)
Number of channels 12
Number of transducers 48
Nominal frequency of the transducers 50 kHz
Bandwidth by the level -6 dB in the emission/receiving mode 25-80 kHz
Operation type of waves shear wave
Low Battery Warning yes
Probe Connection internal connection
Type of battery Li-Ion battery or external power supply 15V 4.3A
Battery Operation Time 5 hours
Battery Operation Voltage Range 9.3 – 12.6 volts
Battery Operation Current Range 0.5 – 0.7 amps
Operation Temperature Range -10 … +50 °C
Frequency range 15 – 180 kHz
Guaranteed Minimum and Maximum Measurable Thickness in concrete 50 – 600 mm
Maximum depth of inspection in concrete 2500 mm
Minimal size of detected reflector sphere with a diameter of 30 mm at a depth of 400 mm in concrete grade M400
Range of Velocity Setting 1000 – 4000 m/s
Type of Sockets

Delivery kit

  • Antenna array A1040 MIRA
  • Controlling unit of Laptop type in bag
  • Net adaptor with cable
  • Cable USB A-Micro B
  • Passport
  • Operation manual
  • Transportation case
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